Rhetorical Devices In A Modest Proposal

Introduction to “A Modest Proposal”

“A Modest Proposal” is a piece of satirical writing dating back to 1729 penned by Jonathan Swift. This idea is highly controversial, as he can be interpreted to have suggested in it that the poor Irish might partially solve their economic predicament by selling children into slavery and most often than not they serve food for some rich people. This is a merely satirical hyperbole that paints almost unbelievably monstrous and brutal picture of the callous attitude found among the rich and powerful towards those who are poor.

Many rhetorical devices are used by Swift to force home his humor. Rhetorical devices include types of language employed in order to convince or make a literary composition appealing and credible. Swift introduces one of the most known satirical works in English employing his scathing sarcasm and manipulative rhetorical figures.

Summary of “A Modest Proposal”

In the opening paragraphs, Swift describes the extreme poverty he sees in Ireland, with beggars and parents unable to provide for their children. He then introduces his shocking proposal:

“I have been assured by a very knowing American of my acquaintance in London, that a young healthy child well nursed is at a year old a most delicious, nourishing, and wholesome food, whether stewed, roasted, baked, or boiled; and I make no doubt that it will equally serve in a fricassee or a ragout.”

He goes on to provide specific details outlining how farms could raise and sell children’s bodies to upper class consumers. Swift coolly calculates that selling 100,000 babies a year could effectively decrease overpopulation and poverty.

Despite the ghastly subject matter, Swift’s narrator maintains a serious, rational tone throughout. He anticipates and counters objections with pragmatic details, referring to classical economic theory to support his insane case. Of course, the narrator is being deeply ironic. Swift’s real purpose is to shock the reader into recognizing just how inhumane the rich classes are to the poor.

Themes in “A Modest Proposal

A Modest Proposal satirizes the harsh economic and social conditions faced by the poor in Ireland. Swift intended to harshly criticize the wealthy apathy of elite class.

A central theme is the callous objectification and exploitation of human lives. Swift discusses butchering Irish babies for meat in the same cold, rational way a farmer might plan his livestock cultivation. This satirizes how capitalism and bureaucracy can sanction treating people as economic resources to be used ruthlessly rather than as individual human beings deserving dignity and empathy.

Swift also targets societal priorities that place monetary values over moral ones. Once human lives are seen as having more financial worth than inherent worth, it opens the door to all kinds of human rights abuses and violations. The narrator assesses the merits of his proposal solely in economic terms, with no discussion of ethical concerns.

Closely tied to objectification is the theme of child exploitation and endangerment. Swift likely wanted readers to reflect on how society was already enabling widespread mistreatment and harm towards marginalized children. By proposing to systemically farm children for human consumption, Swift holds up a macabre mirror to the very real ways children were being failed institutionally in 18th century society.

Class conflicts undergird many of these core themes as well. The poor Irish existence is defined by hunger, homelessness, and lack of resources. Meanwhile their English overseers enjoy extravagant wealth with no economic incentive to aid those beneath them. The vast socioeconomic divide leaves the upper classes blind to the humanity of the subjugated lower classes, who become figures of disdain or indifference. Swift’s satire forcefully indicts the injustice of this situation.

Writing Style of “A Modest Proposal”

Swift adopts a very detached, academic-style tone to describe his gruesome proposal. With a few exceptions, the language is clear, straightforward, and unemotional:

“I have too long digressed, and therefore shall return to my subject. I think the advantages by the proposal which I have made are obvious and many…”

This matter-of-fact writing style stands in stark contrast to the horrific subject he discusses. The narrator speaks of selling babies in the same way he might write about selling cattle or other farm stock. The emotional distance creates a disturbing effect and illuminates the narrator’s moral disconnect. It satirizes bureaucratic, capitalist thinking and its ability to justify almost anything for profit. Swift also uses many rhetorical devices to craft his persuasive yet absurd argument, as we’ll explore next.

Rhetorical Devices in “A Modest Proposal”

1- Understatement

Swift frequently utilizes understatement, where a writer deemphasizes a situation or statement rather than representing it accurately. This allows him to discuss shocking brutality in an understated way:

“But this, and many others, I omit, being studious of brevity.”

Here the narrator dismisses listing further details about processing human babies as a mere concern about his essay’s length. This understated reference to such an awful practice makes the true horror more pronounced.

2- Apophasis

Apophasis (also called paralipsis) involves emphasizing something by pretending to not discuss it. For example:

“I shall now therefore humbly propose my own thoughts, which I hope will not be liable to the least Objection.”

Of course the narrator’s proposal will be extremely controversial and objectionable. But by anticipating and denying this, Swift draws more attention to the outrageous idea.

Later Swift writes:

“For first, as I have already observed, it would greatly lessen the Number of Papists…”

The narrator “observes” that his idea will decrease Catholic births, but he hasn’t actually discussed this before. Claiming you’ve already made a point you haven’t brings emphasis to the unstated idea.

3- Rhetorical Questions

Rhetorical questions make a point by asking questions that demand a certain implied answer:

“Has not the City of Senegal, odious as it is to us, human flesh to sell?”

The answer Swift wants is yes, people do sell human flesh (slaves) in the real world already. The question highlights this ugly truth.

“Would not the constant breeders among us in England…”

The implied answer is no, people would never constantly breed babies for food in England. This reveals how his fictional Irish “breeders” are being dehumanized.

Statistics and Numerical Details

Swift uses precise numbers to lend an air of logic and accuracy to his wild proposal:

“A child will make two dishes at an entertainment for friends, and when the family dines alone…”

“I compute that about Seven Months after licking, a Child may be offered to Sale to the Persons of Quality and Fortune.”

Exact figures on baby marketing and consumption satirize how numbers can make anything sound legitimate. The narrator treats babies as products with strict economic projections.

4- Euphemisms

Euphemisms substitute inoffensive words for harsher, unpleasant references. Swift uses euphemistic language to diminish the horrors he describes, even further satirizing how language can sanitize cruelty:

“A young healthy child well nursed is a most delicious, nourishing, and wholesome food…”
“I grant this food may be somewhat dear…”
“Those who are more thrifty may flea the carcass”

Whether “nourishing food,” “dear food,” or a “fleaed carcass,” these terms gloss over the grim realities of infanticide and cannibalism. The essay constantly employs such gentle-sounding phrases to discuss violent acts.

5- Grotesque Imagery

Swift provides some shockingly grotesque, visceral imagery about his hypothetical human meat industry:

“With the money which purchasers might lay out in buying food for their other children.”
“The girl’s flesh will be much esteemed.”
“A boy’s or girl’s flesh.”

Blunt words like “flesh” and “carcass” cast the narrator’s subjects not as vulnerable people but mere animal products. The direct, physical analogies create very jarring and ghastly mental images.

6- Irony

The entire premise of the essay is built on irony – pretending to argue for an awful thing to make a broader satirical point. Throughout, Swift deploys verbal irony where the intended meaning contrasts with the literal meaning:

“I profess, in the sincerity of my heart, that I have not the least personal interest in endeavouring to promote this necessary work…”

Of course the narrator has every reason to oppose such an immoral practice in reality. But claiming sincerity just underscores the overall irony.

“I desire those politicians who dislike my overture…to first ask the parents of these mortals, whether they would not at this day think it a great happiness.”

No parents would want to sell their infants for meat. The irony savagely satirizes the cruelty and ignorance of the upper classes towards the struggles of poor families.

7- Hyperbole

Swift uses extreme exaggeration and overstatement to create his shocking satire. The entire premise of selling babies as food is hyperbolic to a grotesque degree:

“I have been assured by a very knowing American of my acquaintance in London, that a young healthy child well nursed is at a year old a most delicious, nourishing, and wholesome food…”

Equating infant human flesh to “delicious” and “wholesome” food goes far beyond normal exaggeration. The jarring, over-the-top hyperbole grabs the reader’s attention.

8- Logic and Reason

The narrator goes into painstaking logical detail to argue for his abhorrent proposal, outlining economic benefits and strict policies for the baby-food industry:

“I calculate there may be about two hundred thousand couple whose wives are breeders…There only remains two hundred thousand children of poor parents every year born.”

By showing mathematical “proof” and rational reasoning, Swift mocks how logic can appear to justify even the worst crimes against humanity.

9- Allusion

Swift makes allusions and references to satirize how social ills have historical precedents:

“Has not the City of Senegal…human flesh to sell?”

He alludes to the real African slave trade where humans were commodities, brutally linking the practice to his fictional proposal.

“Infidels are said to butcher some of their children.”

This could refer to practices like child sacrifice, suggesting the roots of injustice go back to ancient cultural evils.

10- Metaphors

Swift uses vivid metaphors to highlight his themes sarcastically:

“I grant this food may be somewhat dear, and therefore very proper for landlords, who, as they have already devoured most of the parents…”

Rich landlords are metaphorically voracious animals “devouring” the poor. Swift creates memorable images to attack systemic predation.

Rhetorical Devices In A Modest Proposal
Rhetorical Devices In A Modest Proposal

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