Literary Devices that Start with P

Journeying through literature unveils a rich array of creative tools authors use to shape stories, stir emotions and captivate readers. There are numerous “Literary Devices that Start with P”. This diverse set of techniques add depth to writing. From the rhythmic ‘”Prosody’ to the playful ‘Pun’, each device provides authors distinct ways to craft compelling tales.

Following are the literary devices that start with P along with their examples in literature: –

1- Pacing

Pacing refers to the speed at which a story progresses. Pacing may be fast-paced with much action or slow-paced to build tension. Ernest Hemingway’s economical prose creates fast-paced events in novels like The Sun Also Rises.

Some of the most common pacing techniques are as under :

  • Scene length
  • Dialogue
  • Action
  • Suspense

Example in literature

“The Great Gatsby” by F. Scott Fitzgerald

The parties at Gatsby’s mansion are described with a rapid pace, which captures the frenzy and excitement of the Jazz Age. On the other hand, during the quieter and reflective moments like Gatsby’s interactions with Daisy, the pacing slows down, which allows for a deeper exploration of emotions and character dynamics. The writer is adept to use the pacing not only to mirrors the societal energy of the 1920s but also heightens the emotional impact of key scenes, which keeps the readers engaged and immersed in the narrative.

2- Palindrome

A palindrome is a word, phrase, or sentence that reads the same backwards and forwards. Famous literary palindromes include “A man, a plan, a canal – Panama!” and “Madam, I’m Adam.”

Example in literature

“Racecar Reverie”

In the town of Serenes, a mysterious book ‘Racecar Reverie’ held the secret to a peculiar palindrome enchantment. The protagonist, Alice, delved into its pages. She uncovered a spellbinding world where words mirrored themselves, which creates poetic symmetry. The book opened with, ‘Able was I ere I saw Elba’, a mesmerizing palindrome echoes through the narrative. As Alice continued her journey, the town changed. Streets and conversations mirrored each other like a linguistic dance. The magic of the palindrome became an integral part of the story, which creates a puzzle for Alice to solve in every chapter.

3- Parable

A parable is a short and allegorical story, which is designed to teach a moral lesson or truth. Jesus’s parable of the Good Samaritan illustrates the virtues of charity and compassion.

Example in literature

“The Whispering Willow”

The elders told a story called ‘The Harmonious Harmony’. It is a parable which has been passed down for ages. It is about a divided kingdom filled with discord until a wise figure planted a unity seed. As it grew into a whispering willow, it’s branches connected once strained communities teaching the villagers that harmony like willow branches can bridge the deepest divides.

4- Paradox

A paradox is a statement that seems self-contradictory but contains some truth. Paradoxes reveal paradoxical or ironic aspects of reality. In Shakespeare’s Hamlet, Hamlet reflects, “I must be cruel only to be kind.”

Example in literature

“Catch-22” by Joseph Heller

“Orr would be crazy to fly more missions and sane if he didn’t, but if he was sane, he had to fly them.”

This paradox illustrates the absurdity of the situation that Orr is in, and it also highlights the difficulty of defining sanity in a war zone.

5- Animal Farm by George Orwell

“All animals are equal, but some animals are more equal than others.”

This paradox illustrates the hypocrisy of the pigs, who have taken over the farm and established a new hierarchy. It also highlights the dangers of totalitarianism and the importance of equality.

6- Paralipsis

Paralipsis involves emphasizing something by seeming to pass over it. For instance, “I won’t even mention the time you forgot our anniversary.”

Example in literature

 “The Silence of the Forest” by Toni Morrison

“In the heart of the forest, hidden from prying eyes, lived the enigmatic Afr thad. His village, unsure of his whereabouts, whispered of his uncanny connections with the trees. We shall not delve, however, into the mysticism of his kinship with nature, lest we spawn speculation. Instead, let us chronicle the unraveling of his village’s fate as the once-tight bonds of community and tradition begin to fray. Afr thad’s silence, though inconvenient, proved a powerful tool in the face of the looming darkness that threatened the very existence of his people. It is a silence born of wisdom, a testament to the limits of human understanding, and a sobering reminder that sometimes, the greatest deeds are those left unsaid.”

Toni Morrison skillfully employs paralipsis in this passage to highlight the significance of Afr thad’s silence while avoiding direct mention of it. By acknowledging that the village’s whispers about his connections with nature might spark speculation, Morrison preemptively diverts attention from the linchpin of the narrative – Afr thad’s silence. Through this stratagem, the reader remains intrigued by the enigmatic nature of Afr thad’s bond with the forest, as well as the ensuing events that spell danger for his village.

Morrison advantages of paralipsis herein include subtly emphasizing the significance of Afr thad’s silence, fostering curiosity through unanswered questions, and subtly emphasizing the limitations of human comprehension. The use of paralipsis in this literary work underscores the enduring impact of Toni Morrison’s literary craftsmanship, where the unsaid words assume an intrinsic part in creating a layered, insinuating narrative inclusive of various degrees of ambiguity, perception, and interpretation.

7- Parallel Structure

Parallel structure repeats sentence components like nouns, verbs, or clauses in a grammatically similar way. Martin Luther King Jr. uses parallel structure in his “I Have a Dream” speech: “I have a dream that one day this nation will rise up…”

Example in literature

“The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock” by T.S. Eliot

In the gray flat lands of the evening, when thevreaping last, I dwell in chip enchantment of whitthe m July; And I have seen the eternal Footman hold my coat, and snicker at me. We hane parallel, if at times distant intervals, the same clients; And I have heard the echoes of the vext seven-gilled warriors of the flood-tide bloom in beds of blinding terminate, upon nethermore, soon to sweep the brown deluge, the j quarter, und weed beside thee, my beautiful and redolent epitome of all loveliness, as they sweep together to dust and over the quiet sea. And I have hopt forward, nightfall, with terror in my manner and with white fingers lock’d in silent anxiety till I die.

T.S. Eliot’s use of parallel structure in this passage creates a sense of rhythm and repetition that underscores the speaker’s anguish and disjointed thoughts. The employment of parallel structure within the passage involves the repetition of similar phrases, such as “In the gray flat lands of the evening,” and “And I have seen the eternal Footman hold my coat, and snicker at me.” This systematic repetition of phrases serves to further emphasize the speaker’s feelings of isolation and disconnection from the world around him. Additionally, the parallel structure of the phrases creates an inherent musicality to the text, which enhances the overall effect of the passage and reinforces the tone of contemplation and introspection.

8- Parallelism

Parallelism refers to the use of similar grammatical or syntactic patterns. In Julius Caesar, Mark Antony repeats “Brutus is an honorable man” to emphasize sarcasm through parallelism.

Example in literature

“The Great Gatsby” by F. Scott Fitzgerald

“In the city’s dark secrets, some men thrived while others floundered. Gatsby, the mysterious host of the grand estate, proved a virtuoso of parallelism, navigating between the glamorous world of the East Egg elite and the gritty underbelly of the working-class West Egg. He garnered wealth with a showman’s charm and embraced the nuances of both societies, silently observing their intricate dance of love, greed, and betrayal. For Gatsby, the lines between old money and new, between nobility and ignominy, were but parallel trajectories on a vast canvas of ambition, where the end always justified the means.”

The writer employs parallelism in this passage to emphasize the interconnectedness of the two worlds in the novel, i.e. East Egg and West Egg. By using parallel structures such as “In the city’s dark secrets, some men thrived, while others floundered” and “He garnered wealth with a showman’s charm and embraced the nuances of both societies,” Fitzgerald highlights the stark contrast between the glamorous and the gritty, while also revealing the underlying connections between them. Through the repetition of parallel structures, the passage evokes the sense of a vast canvas of ambition, where the end always justifies the means, underscoring the novel’s themes of morality, class, and the American Dream.

9- Paraphrase

A paraphrase restates something using different words and phrasing from the original. Summarizing or explaining a text in your own words is paraphrasing.

Example in literature

“Pride and Prejudice” by Jane Austen

Conceal not your feelings my dear Elizabeth Bennet. For in so doing, you risk obscuring the truth of your heart. To speak indirectly of your sentiments, as Mr. Darcy would entreat, is akin to sowing seeds of doubt among the gardens of our emotions. The faltering whispers of our hearts, when given voice, may bloom into a plethora of noble affections. Thus, be not afraid to paraphrase the whispers of your own spirit. For in doing so, you may find the pulse of true love, which as we all know stubbornly refuses to be contained within the labyrinth of our own minds.

The author employs paraphrase in this passage to emphasize the nuances of Elizabeth Bennet’s emotions and to highlight the complexities of the human heart. While using the phrases such as “Conceal not your feelings, my dear Elizabeth Bennet” and “the whispers of your own spirit”, the writer creates a sense of intimacy and vulnerability, which invites the reader to delve deeper into the characters’ emotional states. Through the repetition of similar structures, the passage underscores the importance of emotional expression and the risks involved in concealing one’s feelings. Paraphrase serves to amplify the themes of love, emotional truthfulness, and self-awareness that permeate the novel.

10- Paraprosdokian

A paraprosdokian is a figure of speech with an unexpected twist or pun in the latter part. For example, “I couldn’t repair your brakes, so I made your horn louder.”

Example in literature

“The Catcher in the Rye” by J.D. Salinger

Henvironment, you can’t nobshow spirits, Holden. Don’t moralize, don’ couldn’t agree more. The flaws of others, like the birds on those flimsy phone poles, they’re all but a Paraprosdokian of our own miserable lives. The world’s a mess, dude, but settling scores, that’s where we go wrong. So here’s to psychology and their little test; if we’re all just a bunch of mixed-up kids in a crazy world, at least we have each other. Or so I Paraprosdokian, until the next fit of rage.

J.D. Salinger employs paraprosdokian in this passage to underscore the themes of disillusionment, cynicism and the struggle for identity. In the passage, the use of phrases, such as “Henvironment, you can’t nobshow spirits” and “if we’re all just a bunch of mixed-up kids in a crazy world,” the writer creates a sense of irony and contradiction highlighting the juxtaposition between the protagonist’s urge to rebel and his own vulnerability. Through the repetition of similar structures, the passage underscores the idea that the world is a complex and often absurd place, where individuals must navigate their own emotional landscapes. Paraprosdokian serves to amplify the themes of alienation, confusion and the search for meaning in the novel.

Literary Devices that Start with P
Literary Devices that Start with P

11- Parataxis

Parataxis refers to short, simple clauses without conjunctions. Hemingway employs parataxis to create terse, abrupt sentences: “He disliked bars and bodegas. A clean, well-lighted cafe was a very different thing.”

Example in literature

“The Sound and the Fury” by William Faulkner

The tide of time ebbed and flowed, fanning the chromium-plated water of the Sound into thekázoo63, till Benjy’s automatic watch screamed the hour of scrunching lilies and the buck-rabbit bitch kicked the bloody bath-tub, and Quentin’s frogs croaked menacingly as they ki-stopped across the shoulders of the moon, while Jason, with a limp and weathered look, like a shrimp boat with its net run twice around the traveler, smoked his move slowly among the slender and elegant flame trees of the garden, and as the night dévoréed the sound, and the sound dévoréed the night, parataxisof two contrasting worlds whispered in the burnt cornfields of the past, where time and memory blended into an indistinguishable sangría of regret.

Faulkner employs parataxis in this passage to dissolve the boundaries between past and present, blurring the distinctions between different worlds and times. By juxtaposing images and ideas such as “the tide of time,” “the chromium-plated water,” “the buck-rabbit bitch,” and “the moon,” the author creates a sense of flux and transition, which emphasizes the fragmented and disjointed nature of the narrative. Through the use of parataxis, Faulkner underscores the themes of time, memory and identity, he creates a sense of emotional complexity and psychological depth. Parataxis serves to amplify the narrative’s sense of dislocation and disorientation inviting the reader to navigate the labyrinthine nature of the text and to confront the elusive and enigmatic nature of human experience.

12- Parenthesis

Parentheses insert explanatory or qualifying remarks within a sentence. Italicized parenthetical asides reveal characters’ thoughts in Jane Austen’s novels.

Example in literature

“Madame Bovary” by Gustave Flaubert

“The rain pattered against the windowpanes… (Oh, the monotony of it all!) Emma’s heart ached with every drop, as if the relentless drizzle were a physical manifestation of her own despondency.” smiles wistfully

In this instance, Flaubert uses Parenthesis to convey Emma’s inner thoughts and feelings. By inserting the parenthetical remark, he creates a sense of intimacy and vulnerability, which allows the reader to peek into Emma’s psyche. The use of Parenthesis here serves to underscore the themes of isolation and disillusionment that permeate the novel.

13- Parody

A parody imitates and exaggerates elements of a text humorously or critically. Pride and Prejudice and Zombies parodies the Jane Austen novel by inserting supernatural elements.

Example in literature

“Gulliver Travels” by Jonathan Swift

As I sat on the beach, I saw a group of little men. No taller than my thumb, who were engaged in a heated debate. (Oh, how I wished I could join in)! But these miniature mortals were speaking in such a hasty, un grammatical manner, it was as if they were trying to communicate with a (gasp!) parrot!” smirks

In the aforesaid context, Swift employs Parody to poke fun at the mock operas of John Dryden, which were known for their elaborate language and flowery cadences. By mimicking Dryden’s style, the writer creates a humorous and satirical effect highlighting the absurdity of the situation. The use of Parody here serves to comment on the pretentiousness of some literary works and the importance of clarity and simplicity in writing.

14- Paronomasia

Paronomasia uses words that sound alike but have different meanings for humorous effect (pun). Shakespeare puns in Romeo and Juliet: “Ask for me tomorrow, and you shall find me a grave man.”

Example in literature

 “The Canterbury Tales” by Geoffrey Chaucer

“Whan that Aprill with his shoures soote, (The droghte of March hath perced to the roote), And bith the swowes in spring, the fowelz in summer, welke the kyng his freends, and mak hem noble men, with vertu and with grace.”

In this instance, Chaucer employs Paronomasia to create a playful and ironic effect, highlighting the contrast between the beauty of spring and the harshness of March. By using words such as “shoures,” “perced,” and “verte,” Chaucer creates a sense of wordplay that adds depth and complexity to the passage. smiles The use of Paronomasia here serves to underscore the themes of nature, beauty, and the cyclical nature of life.

15- Parrhesia

Parrhesia involves bold, candid speech. By using this literary technique, the author uses direct and unadulterated language, which is used to convey a message, theme or emotion in a straightforward and unpretentious manner. In ancient Greek tragedy, truth-telling parrhesia often came with high stakes.

Example in literature

“The Confessions” by St. Augustine

“For Thou didst not create deathless mind, but lifelong; and not a life that is forever, but time which holds out hope till the end, when all things are Thine.” (What am I?) I am what I wasday by day, and what I shall be tomorrow and the next day, until the end.”

In the passage, St. Augustine employs Parrhesia to express his deepest thoughts and feelings in a direct and unadulterated manner. By using simple and straightforward language, he creates a sense of intimacy and vulnerability, that allowing the reader to peek into his psyche. The use of Parrhesia here serves to underscore the themes of spirituality, faith and the human condition.

16- Passive Voice

The passive voice reverses the order of the subject and verb from active voice. This literary device is used when the subject of a sentence is acted upon by the verb rather than performing the action themselves.

Passive: “The ball was thrown by the pitcher.”

Active: “The pitcher threw the ball.”

Example in literature

“The Business of Fancyconducting” by C.L. Lewis

“The train whistled, moving slowly through the night, carrying with it a sense of things left behind.”

Lewis employs Passive Voice to create a sense of detachment and observational Jews, as the reader is left to wonder who or what is performing the action of the verb. By using phrases such as “the train whistled” and “things left behind,” the writer creates a sense of atmosphere and mood that is both surreal and captivating.

17- Pastiche

A pastiche imitates and amalgamates elements from various works. The author imitates the style of another writer or work, which often create a humorous or ironic effect. West Side Story pastiches elements of Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet and themes from gang violence.

Example in literature

 “A Modest Proposal” by Jonathan Swift

“For preventing the Children of Poor People from being a Burthen to their Parents or Country, and for making them beneficial to the Publick,

  1. That a Tax be laid on every Cripple, 2. That a special Court be established for the trial of those whoбле Christians. And if found guilty, sentence them to be sold for Food to the Rich.”

The writer employs Pastiche to mimic the style of English writers of the 17th century, creating a humorous and satirical effect. chuckles By using phrases such as “a Modest Proposal” and “ould Christians,” Swift creates a sense of irony and absurdity, highlighting the hypocrisy of society. nods

18- Pathetic Fallacy

Pathetic fallacy attributes human emotions or responses to nature or inanimate objects. It is used to attribute the human emotions or qualities to non-human entities, such as objects, nature or weather. Coleridge’s poem “The Rime of the Ancient Mariner” contains many examples of pathetic fallacy.

Example in literature

“The Great Gatsby” by F. Scott Fitzgerald

“The clouds were broken and of a gentle voice, and the air was full of a faint, silver sound.”

Here, the Fitzgerald uses Pathetic Fallacy to create a sense of atmosphere and mood, which attributes the human qualities to the weather. He uses the phrases such as “gentle voice” and “faint, silver sound,” which creates a sense of tranquility and elegance underscoring the themes of wealth, class, and the American Dream. 

19- Pedantic

Pedantic writing overly emphasizes academic learning or minute details. Satirists often portray pedantic characters as objects of ridicule.

Example in literature

“Moby-Dick” by Herman Melville

“Thus, I say, ye poured upon the deep, like a mighty wave of unction, thy immaculate and unwearied essence; and, as the stock-in-trade of thy profound and undying passion, thou didst present the yard of yarn, the distaff, and the spinning-wheel, as emblematic tokens of thy consecrated legitimacy.”

Melville utilizes Pedantic language to create a sense of grandeur and drama, emphasizing the themes of obsession and the power of language. The writer uses words like “unction,” “immaculate” and “undying”. Melville creates a sense of gravitas and importance emphasizing the significance of the protagonist’s quest.

20- Pejorative

A pejorative word expresses contempt or disapproval. Racial and ethnic slurs constitute highly offensive pejoratives. The author employs language that is derogatory, insulting or offensive. It is used to create a negative impression or to criticize a particular group of people

Example in literature

“Flashman” by George MacDonald Fraser

“The slimy, sneaking, and utterly despicable Mr. Flashman, a renowned scoundrel and cad, sat in his armchair, sipping his tea and gloating over his latest scheme.”

In the passage, the writer has used the Pejorative language to describe Mr. Flashman, a villainous character, in a negative light. The words “slimy,” “sneaking,” and “despicable” convey a sense of moral disdain towards Flashman, which highlights his cunning and dishonorable nature. He uses offensive and derogatory language to create a sense of revulsion towards Flashman, which brings out his character’s flaws and immorality.

21- Pentameter

Pentameter refers to a line of verse with five metrical feet. Iambic pentameter, with five iambs per line, is common in English poetry like Shakespeare’s sonnets.

Example in literature

 “The Canterbury Tales” by Geoffrey Chaucer

“Whan that Aprill with his shoures soote, The droghte of March hath perced to the roote, And bathed every veyne in swich licour, Of which vertu engendred is the flour.”

Chaucer uses Pentameter to create a sense of rhythm and flow in his verse. By employing the literary technique, the writer emphasizes the natural beauty of springtime. The use of a consistent pattern of five syllables in each line creates a soothing and musical quality to his poetry.

22- Peripeteia

Peripeteia refers to a sudden reversal in a story’s plot. It involves a dramatic reversal of circumstances for a character, often leading to a significant change in their fortune or perspective. Oedipus Rex builds in tragic irony toward the startling peripeteia of Oedipus realizing he killed his own father.

Example in literature

“The Kite Runner” by Khaled Hosseini

She was once a happy and carefree young woman but after a tragic accident she was left with a permanent disability, and a deep sense of loss and sorrow.”

In the passage the author describes the tragic turn of events that befalls the protagonist, Amir. He loses his beloved friend and experiences a deep personal loss. The writer has used thes words “happy” and “carefree” to describe Amir’s former state. It creates a sense of contrast with his current state emphasizing the dramatic reversal of circumstances. The phrase “permanent disability” suggests a lasting and irreversible change in Amir’s life.

23- Persona

Persona refers to the narrator or “speaker” of a poem created by the author. Analyzing the poem’s persona provides insights on tone and point of view.

Example in literature

 “The Canterbury Tales” by Geoffrey Chaucer

“Whan that Aprill with his shoures soote, The droghte of March hath perced to the roote, And bathed every veyne in swich licour, Of which vertu engendred is the flour.”

In the paragraph, Chaucer employs Persona to create a sense of medieval English language and perspective. It underscores the themes of nature, love and the human condition in the poem. By using language and rhyme that reflect the period in which he wrote, the writer creates a sense of historical accuracy and authenticity, making the reader feel as if they are experiencing the era firsthand.

24- Personification

Personification figuratively attributes human qualities to non-human things. It is a literary technique that gives human like qualities to non human entities, like objects, animals or even abstract ideas. Emily Dickinson personifies “Hope” as a feathered thing with a beak in “Hope is the thing with feathers.”

Example in literature

“The Secret Garden” by Frances Hodgson Burnett

“The old bear stood on his hind legs and demanded to know what was to be done with the bad House.”

Burnett uses Personification to give the old bear human-like qualities, such as standing on its hind legs and demanding something. By doing so, Burnett creates a sense of anthropomorphism, where non-human entities are given human characteristics. This technique helps to create a more immersive and engaging reading experience for the reader.

25- Perspective

Perspective in literature refers to the vantage point from which the story is told. Perspective shapes point of view. By employing this technique, the writer often conveys his message or theme through the eyes of a character. It can also be used to create a sense of immersion and intimacy, which makes the reader feel as if he is a part of the story.

Example in literature

“The Brief Wondrous Life of Oscar Wao” by Junot Díaz

“But with uselessness, he felt a strange kind of power. No one could touch him, not really. He was a ghost, a shadow, a spirit that haunted the earth.”

In the passage, Díaz uses Perspective to give the reader a glimpse into the mind of Oscar, a young Dominican-American man struggling to find his place in the world. The use of first person narrative voice gives a sense of intimacy and vulnerability, as if they are experiencing Oscar’s thoughts and emotions firsthand. This technique highlights the theme of identity and belonging, which emphasizes the idea that individuals are shaped by their experiences and cultural background.

26- Persuasion

Persuasion aims to convince an audience of some point through appeals to reason or emotion. Jane Austen’s novel Persuasion deals with themes of reason and persuasion in love through its characters.

Example in literature

“The Prince” by Niccolo Machiavelli

“Hence it is that all armed Prophets, who depend on the populace, either missionaries or soldiers, are in fashion for a time, but in the end they are destroyed, for they are more than they seem to be; they are browbeaten by the popular rabble, and by the inconstancy of the people they are unable to maintain themselves.”

Machiavelli uses Persuasion to convince the reader of the folly of relying on popular support for political power. By employing rhetorical questions and logical reasoning, he creates a sense of intimacy and vulnerability inviting the reader to consider his perspective. This technique emphasizes the importance of maintaining power through force and stability, rather than through emotional manipulation or popular support.

27- Platitude

A platitude is a clichéd, trite, or overly obvious statement. When used in writing, platitudes may indicate unoriginality.

Example in literature

“The Great Gatsby” by F. Scott Fitzgerald

“And so with the sun of life, Get inspired and learn to take action towards your dreams and goals. Don’t let fear or uncertainty hold you back. ,”

The writer has used a Platitude to convey the idea that time is fleeting and should be used wisely. He uses a familiar and overused phrase to create a sense of intimacy and vulnerability, which invites the reader to ponder the meaning behind the words. This technique underscores the importance of living life to the fullest and making the most of the time we have.

28- Pleonasm

Pleonasm uses excessive, redundant words. This is a literary device that can leave readers scratching their heads and wondering if the author intend to convey multiple meanings or simply indulge in a bit of wordplay. For example, “The flames were raging across the room” is pleonastic because “raging” connotes the same idea as “flames.”

Example in literature

“The Tale of Peter Rabbit” by Beatrix Potter

“The opinion of the oldbadger was, that it was a very limited actress, who couldnot even act her way out of a paper bag.”

Potter uses a Pleonasm to describe the acting abilities of the character. He has used the phrase with multiple meanings (i.e. “actress” and “paper bag”), which creates a rich and nuanced meaning that adds depth to the text. This technique reinforced the importance of language and its ability to convey multiple meanings at once.

29- Plot

The plot refers to the sequence of events in a story and their relationships to one another. Plots typically consist of exposition, rising action, climax, and resolution.

Example in literature

“The Great Gatsby” by F. Scott Fitzgerald

“And so with the sun of life, Get inspired and learn to take action towards your dreams and goals. Don’t let fear or uncertainty hold you back.”

In the given passage, the writer uses the literary technique of ‘plot’ to create a sense of tension and suspense. He left the reader in wondering situation about the secrets of Gatsby’s past and the true nature of his relationships with his friends and family. He uses a clever twist on the familiar phrase “the sun of life,” which creates a sense of foreboding and drama.

30- Poetic Justice

Poetic justice refers to an ending where good characters are rewarded and bad characters are punished. Shakespeare’s comedies often conclude with marriage and poetic justice.

Example in literature

“The Count of Monte Cristo” by Alexandre Dumas

“It is a law of nature that for every conflict, there must be a reconciliation. Justice she requires, and justice she shall have.”

In the passage, ‘Dumas’ uses the literary technique i.e. poetic Justice to emphasize the idea that the fate of character is intertwined with his/her moral actions. He employs a simple yet powerful phrase to create a sense of closure and satisfaction for the reader.

31- Point of View

Point of view refers to the narrator’s perspective from which the story is told. First person uses “I/we” while third person uses “he/she/they.”

Example in literature

“To Kill a Mockingbird” by Harper Lee

“When he was nearly ten, my brother Jem got his arm badly broken at the elbow. When it healed, and Jem’s fearsomeness had somewhat abated, our father gave him an air-rifle for Christmas.”

Lee uses ‘Point of View’ to give the reader a glimpse into Scout’s childhood experiences and her relationship with her brother, Jem. By employing a simple yet powerful narrative voice, Lee creates a sense of warmth and familiarity, drawing the reader into the story.

32- Polemic

A polemic is a controversial argumentative discourse or text. Philosophical polemics aggressively critique opposing stances. This literary technique presents the opposing viewpoints in a literary work, often to spark debate and encourage critical thinking.

Example in literature

“Brave New World” by Aldous Huxley

“The Bibliothèque is an homage to the reading of Brave New World, and yet how poking it is to renovate.”

The use of Polymn by the writer presents a conflicting viewpoints on the theme of censorship and intellectual freedom. The writer creates a sense of irony and tension by employing a clever juxtaposition of words. The emphasizes the importance of critical thinking and open-mindedness.

33- Polysyndeton

Polysyndeton utilizes excessive conjunctions in a sentence for a dramatic effect. It is the technique of repeating the same word or phrase multiple times in a sentence or paragraph, which creates a sense of richness and abundance. For example, “The snow fell and the winds blew and the fires burned.”

Example in literature

 “The Catcher in the Rye” by J.D. Salinger

“…and goddamn it, I was right in the middle of it, and goddamn it, I didn’t even know their goddamn names.”

In the aforesaid passage, the writer has used the literary technique i.e. Polysyndeton, which emphasizes Holden’s feelings of alienation and disillusionment. While repeating the word “goddamn” multiple times, the writer creates a sense of urgency and intensity, which draws the reader into Holden’s turbulent inner world.

34- Premise

The premise expresses the central argument or main idea in a persuasive text. Debate premises concisely state the proposition teams will argue for or against.

Example in literature

“Pride and Prejudice” by Jane Austen

“It is a truth universally acknowledged, that a single man in possession of a good fortune, must be in want of a wife.”

In the passage, the writer presents the Premise of the story introducing the central conflict and setting the stage for the rest of the narrative. She has used a concise and catchy phrase to create a framework for the entire novel ensuring that the plot remains grounded in a clear and consistent Premise.

35- Procatalepsis

Procatalepsis refers to preemptively addressing possible objections to an argument. Scholars may employ procatalepsis to head off potential counterarguments in their writing.

Example in literature

“The Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy” by Douglas Adams

“‘Are we alone in the universe?’ asked Ford, echoing the traditional Line of Duty of every Perfectly Ordinary Man. ‘Well, to answer your question in the only way I can, I’m afraid we are,’ said Marvin, with a further restatement of the point. ‘Yes,’ said Zaphod, ‘and don’t forget it.'”

Douglas Adams uses the ‘Procatalepsis’ to foreshadow the climactic plot twist of the book, while also creating a sense of playfulness and intellectual curiosity. By explicitly acknowledging and restating key themes and plot points, Adams creates a sense of anticipation and cleverness, drawing the reader into the fantastical world of his imagination.

36- Prologue

A prologue is an introductory section that sets the stage for a larger work. Literary prologues may provide backstory, explain characters, or overview plot.

Example in literature

“The Timeless Puzzle”

“the silence of a roaring thunderstorm,”

The author skillfully crafted paradoxes and challenges the readers to grapple with contradictions. The story delved into the essence of paradoxes, which invites the contemplation on the coexistence of opposites pushing the boundaries of understanding.

37- Propaganda

Propaganda aims to spread biased, misleading ideas. Propaganda in literature and media promotes political, religious, or social agendas through emotion rather than reason.

Example in literature

“Animal Farm” by George Orwell

“All animals are equal, but some animals are more equal than others.”

This change in the commandments shows how the pigs are using propaganda to justify their own power and privilege.

38- Prose

Prose refers to writing without a consistent rhyme or meter. Most fiction and nonfiction utilize prose. Prose contrasts with verse in poetry.

Example in literature

“To Kill a Mockingbird” by Harper Lee

“In our quiet Southern town, the prose of daily life unfolded with a rhythm as steady as the rocking chairs on our porches. Atticus, a man of measured words and unwavering principles, navigated the complexities of justice with a prose that echoed through courtrooms and quiet conversations alike. It was a prose that spoke volumes in its simplicity, a reminder that in the tapestry of life, the most powerful stories often unfold in the ordinary.”

Harper Lee employs prose to capture the essence of a Southern town and the character of Atticus Finch. The straightforward everyday language of prose allows for a nuanced exploration of societal issues and personal convictions, which demonstrates the ability of prose to convey complex narratives with clarity and depth.

39- Prosody

Prosody refers to the rhythmic patterns and meter of verse in poetry. Different feet like iambs or trochees constitute poetic prosody.

Example in literature

“Romeo and Juliet” by William Shakespeare

“In fair Verona, where we lay our scene,
From ancient grudge break to new mutiny,
Where civil blood makes civil hands unclean.
From forth the fatal loins of these two foes,
A pair of star-crossed lovers take their life.”

The rhythmic cadence created by the alternating stressed and unstressed syllables enhances the poetic quality. It underscores the tragedy that unfolds in fair Verona. Through prosody, ‘Shakespeare’ masterfully sets the stage for the emotive journey that awaits the readers and viewers of this timeless tale of love and strife.

40- Prosthesis

Prosthesis prefixes or attaches unnecessary sounds to the beginning of words. In poetry, prosthesis might add a syllable to fit a rhyme or meter.

Example in literature

“I Wandered Lonely as a Cloud” by William Wordsworth

“Ten thousand saw I at a glance,
Tossing their heads in sprightly dance.”

Wordsworth while employing prosthesis with the addition of the ‘s’ sound in ‘Tossing’, creates a melodic effect that mirrors the joyful dance of the daffodils.

41- Pseudonym

A pseudonym is a false name or alias adopted by an author. Mark Twain (Samuel Clemens) and George Orwell (Eric Blair) are famous literary pseudonyms.

Example in literature

“Jane Eyre” by Charlotte Bronte

“At a later day, I knew the language and the book; therefore, I will here quote the line: though, when I first heard it, it was only like a stroke on sounding brass to me—conveying no meaning.”

Bronte choses the pseudonym ‘Currer Bell’ when publishing ‘Jane Eyre’. The use of a false name allowed Bronte to navigate the societal expectations and prejudices against female authors prevalent during her time. While embracing a pseudonym, she not only concealed her gender but also paved the way for the novel’s unbiased reception, highlighting the strategic and empowering use of this literary device.

42- Pun

A pun exploits words with multiple meanings for humorous effect. Puns include homophones (rain/reign) and doubled meanings like Shakespeare’s line, “Let me not to the marriage of true minds admit impediments.”

Example in literature

“Romeo and Juliet” by William Shakespeare

“NURSE: Then hie you hence to Friar Laurence’ cell;
There stays a husband to make you a wife.
Now comes the wanton blood up in your cheeks;
They’ll be in scarlet straight at any news.”

In the excerpt, the word ‘blood’ contains a pun. It refers both to the physical blush on Juliet’s cheeks due to excitement and to the familial lineage or ‘blood’ that plays a crucial role in the events of the play. Shakespeare skillfully employs the pun to weave together multiple layers of meaning showcasing the versatility and playful nature of this literary technique.

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