Juxtaposition vs Irony (Key Differences and Examples)

Juxtaposition and irony represent two important literary devices that writers utilize to convey deeper meaning through contrasting concepts.

What is Juxtaposition?

Juxtaposition refers to place two contrasting ideas, characters, objects and settings side-by-side to highlight their differences. Positioning the two elements next to each other allows writers to underlines key contrasts between them for rhetorical effect.

Some common types of juxtaposition involve contradictory ideas, opposing imagery, discordant symbols and differences in characters or time frames. Writers grasps unexpected combinations to emphasize ironies and evokes deeper reflection on the inconsistencies presented.

What is Irony?

Irony refers to the use of words to convey a meaning that is the opposite of their literal meaning. It often involves a situation in which the outcome is very different to what was expected and intended. Verbal irony is when someone says the opposite of what they actually mean. Situational irony occurs when events unfold in an unexpected way. Dramatic irony is when the audience knows something important that characters do not. Through irony, writers reveal paradoxes between intentions and reality.

Examples of Juxtaposition

  1. War and Peace
  2. Wealthy and Impoverished
  3. Light and Dark
  4. Joy and Sorrow
  5. Life and Death
  6. Past and Present
  7. Fiction and Fact
  8. Slow Motion and Fast Action
  9. Tall and Short
  10. Young and Old

Examples of Irony

  1. Verbal Irony – Saying Opposite
  2. Situational Irony – Events Defying Expectations
  3. Dramatic Irony – Audience Knowledge Characters Lack
  4. Comic Irony – Humorous Contradictions
  5. Tragic Irony – Suffering Emerging from Characters’ Own Actions
  6. Socratic Irony – Feigning Ignorance to Provoke Thought
  7. Cosmic Irony – Indifference of Universe to Human Endeavors
  8. Historical Irony – Outcomes Contradicting What Was Intended
  9. Ironic Names – Names That Contradict Character’s Nature
  10. Ironic Deaths – Deaths Contradicting Character’s Attitudes

Juxtaposition vs. irony

Contrasts differences by positioning two opposing elements togetherReveals contradiction between actual and intended meaning
Underscores ironies and inconsistenciesOutcomes differ from what is expected
Often uses imagery, symbols, ideas, charactersLiteral and intended meaning are opposite
Evokes deeper reflection on differencesWords/situations convey contradictory meanings

Examples of Juxtaposition in Literature


“Romeo and Juliet” by William Shakespeare

Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet, light and dark imagery is juxtaposed when Romeo says:

“But soft, what light through yonder window breaks? It is the east, and Juliet is the sun.”

Romeo juxtaposes here to expresses Juliet by contrasting her radiance with the darkness of night. Specifically, he positions her brightness and beauty against the blackness of the east. This literary device merges opposing imagery and compares Juliet to the sun.

In this way, Romeo emphasize her favorability while ironically juxtaposing light and dark symbols. The light imagery of the sun evokes daytime, warmth and illumination, whereas the east signals the darkness before sunrise.


“Wuthering Heights” by Emily Bronte

In the novel, light and darkness are juxtaposed when Catherine says:

“My love for Heathcliff resembles the eternal rocks beneath: a source of little visible delight, but necessary.”

This excerpt positions Catherine’s intense love for Heathcliff against the imagery of dark. The author creatively contrasts the tumultuous and unclear nature of Catherine’s affection next to the solid permanence of subterranean rock.

The fusion of the seemingly conflicting concepts of emotion and stoic geology underlines the durability of Catherine’s attachment. It thrives not through overt displays but rather through an underlying and relentless constancy. The juxtaposition of symbols compares the external and enduring earth to internal and steadfast passion.


“Animal Farm” by George Orwell

“Four legs good, two legs bad” to “Four legs good, two legs better.”

Orwell ironically juxtaposes the original idea with its opposite meaning, contrasting “two legs bad” with “two legs better” to highlight the hypocrisy of the pigs. 

Related post: Juxtaposition Examples In Disney Movies

Examples of Irony in literature


There is dramatic irony when Juliet says:

“Thou know’st the mask of night is on my face, Else would a maiden blush bepaint my cheek for that which thou hast heard me speak to-night.”

Romeo and Juliet have just met at her family’s party. They instantaneously fall in love and Juliet speaks openly about her romantic feelings to Romeo. The irony lies in the mismatch between Juliet’s words and her actual emotions. She states that if her face were visible (“Else would a maiden blush bepaint my cheek”), it would show a blush of embarrassment or shame (“a maiden blush”). This suggests she should feel self-conscious or shy about boldly declaring her passions to Romeo, a young man she only just met.

Yet Juliet shows no such inhibitions or restraint whatsoever. Rather, she speaks freely and candidly to Romeo about her romantic attraction under the liberating “mask of night” that conceals any bashful maidenly blushing her words might otherwise cause.

So while Juliet hypothetically claims she’d blush in feminine modesty over her forward expressions, her actions contradict this. With night’s “mask” protecting her from scrutiny, she overcomes any embarrassment she “should” feel to speak openly from her heart.

Shakespeare uses this irony between imagined meekness and actual boldness to emphasize night’s power to permit the sincere expression of secrets and suppressed truths. Ironically it is concealment in darkness rather than exposure in light that liberates Juliet’s declaration of her authentic longings.


“Gift of the Magi” by O. Henry

In O. Henry’s Gift of the Magi, situational irony emerges when Della sells her hair to buy her husband a watch chain, while he sells his watch to buy her hair accessories:

“Of all who give gifts, these two were the wisest.”

The irony highlights flaws in so-called “conventional wisdom” about what makes a considerate, thoughtful gift. Sometimes even well-intended gifts miss the mark or have unintended negative consequences. There are surprises regarding what gift-giving behavior is truly wise versus merely appearing so on the surface.


“Twelfth Night” by Shakespeare

The dramatic irony underlies Viola’s disguise as she is unaware Orsino loves her:

“And what should I do in Illyria? My brother, he is in Elysium.”

The audience knows Orsino loves Viola posing as Cesario though she does not, heightening the drama.

Importance of Juxtaposition

Juxtaposition places contrasting elements together. It allows writers to emphasize key differences between two things for rhetorical purposes. The technique is important for:

  • Highlighting ironies and inconsistencies
  • Evoking deeper reflection on comparative qualities
  • Adding creativity through unexpected combinations

Read also: Juxtaposition VS Paradox

Importance of Irony

Irony reveals paradoxes between reality and intended meaning. The device serves important functions like:

  • Conveying poignant criticisms
  • Causing readers to re-examine assumptions
  • Building suspense through dramatic tension
  • Sets up tragic and comedic effects


Juxtaposition contrasts differences and positions opposites together. On the other hand, irony reveals contradiction through language and convey an actual meaning opposite to the literal and intended one. Both the devices allow writers to highlight life’s many paradoxes in impactful ways. Their artful application allows commentary on the fickleness of fate, limits of knowledge and the all-too-common gulf between dreams and reality.

Juxtaposition vs Irony (Key Differences and Examples)
Juxtaposition vs Irony (Key Differences and Examples)

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